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Other ratio combination insulins may be on the nonpreferred brand tier on plans with an open formulary.


Once-daily Xultophy® 100/3.6

Taking glycemic control a step further

Indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on basal insulin (less than 50 units daily) or liraglutide (less than or equal to 1.8 mg daily). Click for Limitations of Use.

Man walking down stairs



Average A1C below 7%
achieved in all trials1


Lowers FPG and PPG
for 24 hours1


Less insulin needed
to achieve A1C goal vs insulin glargine U-1001,a,b


FPG=fasting plasma glucose; PPG=postprandial glucose.
There are additional factors that influence glycemic control.

aIt is unclear whether these observed differences in insulin doses are clinically important.

bPatients could not increase the dose of the 2 products by more than 4 units per week and there was no maximum allowed dose of insulin glargine U-100.1


Xultophy® pen


Once-daily dosing1

Xultophy® 100/3.6 is a fixed-ratio combination of Tresiba® (insulin degludec), a long-acting basal insulin, and Victoza® (liraglutide), the #1 prescribed GLP-1 RA therapy.1,2

Approved in 2016, Xultophy® 100/3.6 is the latest addition to the Novo Nordisk diabetes care portfolio.



Mechanism of Action (MOA)

Find out how insulin degludec and liraglutide, a GLP-1 RA, work together to improve glycemic control.1



Using the Xultophy® 100/3.6 Pen

Patients can dial their dose just like a basal insulin and learn how to inject with this instructional video.1



GLP-1 RA=glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist.


 

Study designs

Patients converted from basal insulin

DUAL™ II (Study B): A 26-week, randomized, parallel, double-blind, treat-to-target trial in adult patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled (A1C 7.5%-10%) on basal insulin (20-40 units) and metformin ± sulfonylurea or glinides, comparing the efficacy and safety of Xultophy® 100/3.6 (n=199) with insulin degludec (n=199), both + metformin. Pretrial basal insulin, sulfonylurea, and glinides were discontinued at randomization. The primary endpoint was change in A1C after 26 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoints included change in laboratory-measured FPG, dose, change in body weight, percent of patients achieving A1C <7%, and episodes of hypoglycemia.1,3

DUAL™ V (Study C): A 26-week, randomized, parallel, open-label, treat-to-target trial in adult patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled (A1C 7%-10%) on insulin glargine U-100 (20-50 units) + metformin, comparing the safety and efficacy of Xultophy® 100/3.6 (n=278) with continued up-titration of insulin glargine U-100 (n=279), both + metformin. The primary endpoint was change in A1C after 26 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoints included change in laboratory-measured FPG, dose, change in body weight, percent of patients achieving A1C <7%, and episodes of hypoglycemia.1,4

Patients converted from liraglutide

DUAL™ III (Study A): A 26-week, randomized, parallel, open-label, treat-to-target trial in insulin-naïve adult patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled (A1C 7%-9%) on up to 1.8 mg of liraglutide and metformin ± pioglitazone ± sulfonylurea, comparing the efficacy and safety of Xultophy® 100/3.6 (n=232) with unchanged liraglutide (n=116). All pretrial oral antidiabetic (OAD) therapies were continued throughout the trial. The primary endpoint was change in A1C after 26 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoints included change in laboratory-measured FPG, dose, change in body weight, percent of patients achieving A1C <7%, and episodes of hypoglycemia.1,5

In all studies, patients could not increase their insulin or Xultophy® 100/3.6 dose by more than 4 units per week.

Selected Important Safety Information

WARNING: RISK OF THYROID C-CELL TUMORS

  • Liraglutide, one of the components of Xultophy® 100/3.6, causes dose-dependent and treatment-duration-dependent thyroid C-cell tumors at clinically relevant exposures in both genders of rats and mice. It is unknown whether Xultophy® 100/3.6 causes thyroid C-cell tumors, including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), in humans, as the human relevance of liraglutide-induced rodent thyroid C-cell tumors has not been determined.
  • Xultophy® 100/3.6 is contraindicated in patients with a personal or family history of MTC and in patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 2 (MEN 2). Counsel patients regarding the potential risk for MTC with the use of Xultophy® 100/3.6 and inform them of symptoms of thyroid tumors (e.g. a mass in the neck, dysphagia, dyspnea, persistent hoarseness). Routine monitoring of serum calcitonin or using thyroid ultrasound is of uncertain value for early detection of MTC in patients treated with Xultophy® 100/3.6.

Indications and Limitations of Use

Xultophy® 100/3.6 (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection) 100 units/mL and 3.6 mg/mL is a combination of insulin degludec and liraglutide and is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on basal insulin (less than 50 units daily) or liraglutide (less than or equal to 1.8 mg daily).

  • Xultophy® 100/3.6 is not recommended as first-line therapy for patients who have inadequate glycemic control on diet and exercise.
  • Xultophy® 100/3.6 has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis. Consider other antidiabetic therapies in patients with a history of pancreatitis.
  • Xultophy® 100/3.6 is not recommended for use in combination with any other product containing liraglutide or another GLP-1 receptor agonist.
  • Xultophy® 100/3.6 is not indicated for use in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.
  • Xultophy® 100/3.6 has not been studied in combination with prandial insulin.

Important Safety Information

WARNING: RISK OF THYROID C-CELL TUMORS

  • Liraglutide, one of the components of Xultophy® 100/3.6, causes dose-dependent and treatment-duration-dependent thyroid C-cell tumors at clinically relevant exposures in both genders of rats and mice. It is unknown whether Xultophy® 100/3.6 causes thyroid C-cell tumors, including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), in humans, as the human relevance of liraglutide-induced rodent thyroid C-cell tumors has not been determined.
  • Xultophy® 100/3.6 is contraindicated in patients with a personal or family history of MTC and in patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 2 (MEN 2). Counsel patients regarding the potential risk for MTC with the use of Xultophy® 100/3.6 and inform them of symptoms of thyroid tumors (e.g. a mass in the neck, dysphagia, dyspnea, persistent hoarseness). Routine monitoring of serum calcitonin or using thyroid ultrasound is of uncertain value for early detection of MTC in patients treated with Xultophy® 100/3.6.

Contraindications

  • Xultophy® 100/3.6 is contraindicated during episodes of hypoglycemia and in patients with hypersensitivity to Xultophy® 100/3.6, either of the active substances, or any of its excipients.

Warnings and Precautions

  • Risk of Thyroid C-cell Tumors: If serum calcitonin is measured and found to be elevated or thyroid nodules are noted on physical examination or neck imaging, the patient should be further evaluated.
  • Pancreatitis: Acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis, has been observed in patients treated with liraglutide postmarketing. Observe patients carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis (persistent severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back with or without vomiting). If pancreatitis is suspected, discontinue Xultophy® 100/3.6 promptly and if pancreatitis is confirmed, do not restart. Consider other antidiabetic therapies in patients with a history of pancreatitis.
  • Never Share a Xultophy® 100/3.6 Pen Between Patients, even if the needle is changed. Sharing of the pen poses a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens.
  • Hyper- or Hypoglycemia with Changes in Xultophy® 100/3.6 Regimen: Monitor blood glucose in all patients. Changes in Xultophy® 100/3.6 regimen may affect glycemic control. Changes should be made cautiously and under medical supervision. Adjustments in concomitant oral anti-diabetic treatment may be needed.
  • Overdose Due to Medication Errors: Instruct patients to check the label before each injection since accidental mix-ups with insulin containing products can occur. Do not administer more than 50 units of Xultophy® 100/3.6 daily. Do not exceed the 1.8 mg maximum recommended dose of liraglutide or use with other GLP-1 receptor agonists.
  • Hypoglycemia: Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction of insulin containing products, including Xultophy® 100/3.6, and may be life-threatening. Increase monitoring with changes to: dose, co-administered glucose lowering medications, meal pattern, physical activity; and in patients with hypoglycemia unawareness or renal or hepatic impairment.
  • Acute Kidney Injury: Acute renal failure and worsening of chronic renal failure, which may sometimes require hemodialysis, have been reported postmarketing for liraglutide, usually in association with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or dehydration. Advise patients of the potential risk of dehydration due to gastrointestinal adverse reactions and take precautions to avoid fluid depletion.
  • Hypersensitivity and Allergic Reactions: Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, bronchospasm, hypotension, and shock can occur. If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, discontinue and treat per standard of care.
  • Hypokalemia: All insulin containing products, including Xultophy® 100/3.6 can lead to life-threatening hypokalemia, which may then cause respiratory paralysis, ventricular arrhythmia, and death. Monitor potassium levels in patients at risk for hypokalemia and treat if indicated.
  • Fluid Retention and Congestive Heart Failure: Patients using insulin containing products, including Xultophy® 100/3.6, with thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are PPAR-gamma agonists, should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If heart failure develops, dosage reduction or discontinuation of the TZD must be considered.
  • Macrovascular Outcomes: There have been no studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with Xultophy® 100/3.6.

Adverse Reactions

  • The most common adverse reactions, reported in ≥5% of patients treated with Xultophy® 100/3.6 are nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, diarrhea, increased lipase and upper respiratory tract infection.

Drug Interactions

  • Certain drugs may affect glucose metabolism, requiring dose adjustment and close monitoring of blood glucose. The signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia may be reduced or absent in patients taking anti-adrenergic drugs (e.g., beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine, and reserpine).  
  • Liraglutide-containing products, including Xultophy® 100/3.6, cause a delay of gastric emptying, and thereby have the potential to impact the absorption of concomitantly administered oral medications. Caution should be exercised when oral medications are concomitantly administered with liraglutide-containing products.

Use in Specific Populations

  • Xultophy® 100/3.6 should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Please click here for Prescribing Information.

 

References:

  1. Xultophy 100/3.6 [package insert]. Plainsboro, NJ: Novo Nordisk Inc; November 2016.
  2. Internal calculations based on IMS MIDAS database, March 2017.
  3. Buse JB, Vilsbøll T, Thurman J, et al; NN9068-3912 (DUAL-II) Trial Investigators. Contribution of liraglutide in the fixed-ratio combination of insulin degludec and liraglutide (IDegLira). Diabetes Care. 2014;37:2926-2933.
  4. Lingvay I, Pérez Manghi F, García-Hernández P, et al; DUAL V Investigators. Effect of insulin glargine up-titration vs insulin degludec/liraglutide on glycated hemoglobin levels in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes: the DUAL V randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315(9):898-907.
  5. Linjawi S, Bode BW, Chaykin LB, et al. The efficacy of IDegLira (insulin degludec/liraglutide combination) in adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with a GLP-1 receptor agonist and oral therapy: DUAL III randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Ther. 2017;8(1):101-114.